United Nations came into existence to avoid on other global was after the second world was in 1945 and after the formation of United Nations. U.N.D.P. was founded on 22th November 1962 with the objective of development of under developed countries. U.N.D.P. is presently operating in 77 countries. It is funded by voluntary contribution from member nations. In the year 2010 its annual budget was about 5 billon us dollar. Its main objective is to provide expert advice, provide training and to grant support to member under privileged Nations, it also provides financial assistance to least developed countries. Under U.N.D.P. training programme many offices, technical professionals are provided training in various institute in U.K., Australia, Japan etc. Japan’s international corporation agency sans various training programmes in the field of sic cultivation and dairy technology. Various programmes of poverty alleviation being sun with the help of U.N.D.P. project.
Objective of U.N.D.P. in poverty alleviation :- U.N.D.P. works to ensues seal improvement in peoples live preferably in developing countries. Efforts are made in opening up the choices and opportunities for the people reading in economically backward nations. Its main good is to ensure sustainable development in the developing states and to work to the reduce the poverty in all is dominions as are aware that 22% of the world’s population lives below poverty line. The international parameter for defining a poor person is $ 1.25 per day beef in India the condition is more pitiable. As per the planning commission of India a person who expends less than Rs.32 per day in urban area and Rs.28 per day in rural area is known to be a person living below poverty line.
In the field of poverty alleviation U.N.D.P. works in poverty alleviation in the following areas.
I. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger :- To remove the extreme poverty and hunger in most backward states by way of financial assistance and various other process. In fizz more than 20,000 people has been benefited by the pacific financial inclusion programme which is run by joint venture of U.N.D.P. United Nations capital development fund (U.N.D.P.) Union.
II. Achieve Universal Primary Education :- As everyone of us is world and is main reasons of poverty. Since its formation in 1965 U.N.D.P. is committed to achieve universal primary education specially in the poor countries. Various projects on education are being run by U.N.D.P. with collaboration of U.N.D.P. and many non government organizations.
III. Empower women :- Empowerment of women is the main objective of United Nations Development Programme in Developing countries Empowerment of women is ensured by the way of various training programmes for the women is economically backward nations. In India various programme relating to women development are run with the assistance of U.N.D.P. is tribal areas of Jharkhand, Tripura and Odessa.
IV. To Reduce Child Mortality :- As per the U.N.D.P. report 49.5% mortality in India are malnutrition and the child mortality rate is also very ligh. The similar situation prevails in countries like Bangladesh, Srilanka, Somalia, Tango, Solomon and Niziria etc. U.N.D.P. have made commendable efforts in reducing the child mortality rate and financial assistance programmes. It was the efforts of U.N.D.P. which encouraged many NGO’s to come forward and work forward for reduction of mortality in India as well as in other countries by starting many awareness programmes and other schemes.
V. To improve maternal health :- Improvement of maternal health has been most important good of U.N.D.P. according to a report of United Nations food and Agriculture Organization, in India 56% women are anemic and health problems of women in poor countries including developing country like India has been taken care of by U.N.D.P. with collaboration of WHO. A major portion of U.N.D.P. budget is being used on maternal health.
VI. To combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases :- Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other communicable diseases has become a great challenge in the poor nations. These diseases does not only threaten the lives of millions of people. They also hamper economic growth and development.
Decade ago world leader set ambitious targets for reversing the spread of HIV, Malaria. Tuberculosis and other diseases by 2015 and achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment. Progress towards achieving these millennium development goals set U.N.D.P. has been very impressive, specially in poor nations despite many challenges posed by conflict, climate change and financial erases.
In combating these diseases some of the challenges are :-
(a). Low literacy rate which demands to develop the awareness programmes being run by U.N.D.P. and other UN agencies with collaboration of many NGO.S.
(b). Lack of regular supportive supervision because of less developed infrastructure and inaceeble locations especially during sainy seasons .
(C). Lack of proper supervision by the respective country’s Health ministry after the projects life line come to an end.
Despite these challenges the efforts of U.N.D.P. in combating he HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other communicable diseases have been a great success.
VII. Ensure environmental sustainability :- Environ sustainability is very vital for poverty alleviation in the world. Climate changes intensifying disasters including extreme whether conditions, storm, floods and draught. It is very vital that the development strategies incorporate measures to string then community through economic development, income diversification and disaster preparedness. The use of water has grown to double of the rate of population growth during the past century. More than 1.2 billions of people live under water scarcity. Women are particularly affected in many regions by lack of water and sanitation services. By virtue of efforts of U.N.D.P. about 1.6 billion peoples access to safe drinking water since 1990 but about 1 billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water and 2.5 billion lack access to basic sanitation service. About 2.4 billion people still live without access to modern cooking and about 1.6 billion still have no access to electricity.
In united Nations convention held in 2009 following steps are to be taken o ensure environmental sustainability –
- Ø Ensure effective conservation and management to restrict the lose of
- Ø To spread porgrammes essential to develop pro poor environmental outcomes.
- Ø Provide investment to brig electricity and cleaner cooking fuels to the large segments of the world population.
- Ø Develop pro poor natural resources and eco friendly management system.
- Ø Introduce innovative financial mechanism to raise finances for environmental sustainability.
- Ø Ensure climatic adaptation programmes and reduce the negative impact of climate change in least development countries.
- Ø Promote selective bio fuel development based an availability energy sources, impact on land, water deforestation and prices of food items.
- Ø At least 1% of GDP should be spent on water and sanitation.
In Tanzania, U.N.D.P. and global environment facility (GEF) provided solar energy system to some 8,400 house hold’s collectively reducing carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.93 metric tons per year.
U.N.D.P. helps government of the developing nations and partners community based water surveillance system to serene for contaminants like human forces, arsenic, flu ride and nitrates . U.N.D.P. and U.N.D.P. also promote a range of low. Cast sanitation water and hand washing facilities and helps improve sanitation and promote hygiene like hand washing in school. A lot has been alone but still there is a long way to go in the field of environment sustainability in the poor nations in the world. U.N.D.P. has worked with the global fund to support the number of countries to improve management.
VIII. Ensure global partnership for development :- Since 1994 global Partnership has provided opportunity for people in Latin America and pacific to earn a living and improve these lives. The initiative is a part of global partnership. Three year plan to forge partnership to bring essential health service to 1,00,000 people living belong poverty line in Latin America. The million goals represent a global partnership for development. The deal makes clear that it is a primary responsibility of poor countries to works towards achieving the goals set by U.N.D.P. for development of people living in poor countries. They most do their part of ensure greater accountability to citizens and efficient use of resources.
Keeping in view the objection mentioned above the U.N.D.P. development programme has successfully run the following programmes to remove the poverty in the development nations and in most backward nations.
(1). Financial help to pacific poorest :- Duller a 70 year old of Fiji was one of the 20,000 beneficiaries of pacific inclusion Fiji, Papua, Soma, Solomon, Tango and Venejula. This is a joint venture project started at the initiative of U.N.D.P. UNCDF (United Nations Capital Development Fund ) and European Union. In this programme financial assistance is provided to the people of poor regions. Under this porgramme money is deposited directly the bank account of beneficiary.
The Ist countries within the Asia pacific region was launched in 2005 and the second Poverty Entertainment Initiative Programme was launched in Bhutan in 2008. In 2011 a Joint UNDP –UNEF PE 9 regional team was formed to support PE 9 process. Tow regional workshop and substantial growth were hold in March 2007 in Bhutan and 2008 in Thailand. Both the workshop serve to identify the needs for poverty environmental mainstreaming within the region.
As of 2011 the Asia Pacific Regional Programme is supporting five national PE 9 Programme in Bhutan, Bangladesh, Leaper, Nepal and Thailand.
(2). Empowerment through Micro-financing in Mongolia :- U.N.D.P. in Partnership with government of Mongolia pioneered a micro financial initiative targeting those who has not been benefited from National Economic transformation from centrally planned economy to market driven economy after the end of Bipolarity era and starting of market controlled economy.
(3). Jamaica Debt Exchange :- The Programme lightened its debt its service burden by restructuring Jamaica domestic debt. In the year 2009 debt burden was nearly 13 billion us $ in other words it was 135% of country’s GDP. On the initiative of U.N.D.P. 99% of the creditors particulate in debt exchange programme. The initiative has reduced the interest obligations by over us $ 500 million in 2010 which is equal to 35% of GDP of Jamaica.
(4). India’s Rural Employment Guarantee Act-2005 :- U.N.D.P. is India’s Bey Partner in implementation of Mahatma Gandhi rural employment guarantee Act (MNREGA) under this programme a minimum of 100 days of employment is provided to below poverty line (BPL) families in India. Through a of irregularities and cases of corruption has been observed in this programme beef this programme has been very useful in eradicating the hunger amongst poor families in the countries. The poor families in the rural India which were at the bank of starvation are now getting at least 100 days employment in a year.
(5). Understanding poverty and inequality in Namibia :- During the decades of eighty’s and Ninety’s the economic condition of Namibia were very alarming U.N.D.P. stated a project for understanding poverty and inequality in Namibia. Because in Namibia there is unequal distribution of resources, which resulted into poverty and inequality in Namibia.
(6). U.N.D.P. focuses on gender equality and women empowerment :- Since its formation the United Nations has always emphasized the removal of gender inequality. There should be no discrimination on the basis of gender. Women should be provided equal opportunity in every field of life. Various programmes of women empowerment is being run by different agencies of United Nations including U.N.D.P. after the era of market based economy women are now working in every field I.T. sector has been a hub for the employment of women in all over the world.
Conclusion :- the United Nations development programme which was founded on 22/11/1968 with the main objective in improvement in peoples lives opening up the choices and opportunities. It aims to promote sustainable development and works to reduce poverty in all dimensions. U.N.D.P. is presently working 177 countries. U.N.D.P. has been very successful in eradication of poverty in the most backward nations of the world. The dream project of MNREGA is co-partnered by U.N.D.P. . like wise U.N.D.P. has been very successful in eradication of poverty in most other communicable diseases. Everyone of wishes for coming trace the target of U.N.D.P. of complete eradication of poverty by 2015.